英语写作技巧新编

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出版社:外文出版社
出版日期:1997-08
ISBN:9787119020839
作者:汪福祥
页数:411页

章节摘录

  The effective and artistic use of words largel.y depend on the writers talents in language and his ability to use the rhetorical devices. In this section, lets first examine three pieces of writing and then get a feel of what effective and artistic writ- ings read and sound like. Paragraph 1  Almost immediately I felt a surge of restlessness run through the col- umn: a palace guard of soldier ants appeared, their antennae raised, their mandibles bared. Behind them, at last, came the Queen. She ad- vanced slowly, dragging her huge belly, and swinging her head from side to side. I bent low to photograph her-so low that the enraged sol- dier ants were able to leap onto my camera. As I took four or five expo- sures they swarmed over my. face. I dropped my camera, and slapped madly at them. They died, but their task was done. I looked at the col- umn again, the Queen had disappeared into the black tropical night. (From The Observer Magazine).

前言

  在全国性的英语教学会议上,专家们一致反映,中国学生的英文写作存在着很多问题。对于学生们自己来说,写作也是最令人头痛的难题。究其原因,造成写作困难的主要因素可归结为四个方面:语言障碍、母语思维方式的影响、思想和表达思想能力的缺乏以及写作知识和写作技巧的生疏。  首先,缺乏系统和规范的语言知识是造成语言障碍的主要因素。比如:中国学生在学习英语单词时,大都只注意单词的表意,对词的潜在之意,特别是词的重量、词的精神以及词在不同语境中产生的不同语意等知识了解甚少。此外,中国学生在英语时态、句子结构以及英语修辞等方面的训练更是欠缺。再加上中国学生一般容易忽视应用语言学和社会语言学的系统研究以及写作意识的培养,就更加剧了写作的难度。  除语言功底外,母语思维方式的干扰也是造成写作困难的重要因素。语言是社会和文化的产物,是生活在特定的社会和文化之中的人所持有的特有思维方式的表现形式。因此,社会和文化的差异决定了语言形式和思想表达方式的不同。按照语言学家用普系分类法对语言的分类,英语属印欧语系日耳曼语族的西日耳曼语支,而汉语则属汉藏语系,是两种完全不同的语言。仅以“客气”这一概念为例,中国人习惯用“贬低自己所做的实际工作”的方式来表达,从而产生了诸如“我没有什么好说的”,’“我没做什么准备”以及“哪里,哪里”之类的说法。

内容概要

作 者 简 介
作者汪福祥,1977年
毕业于北京第二外国语学
院并留校任教。1981年获
澳大利亚政府奖学金,赴
澳大利亚堪培拉高等教育
学院留学并获硕士学位。
1987年应国家教委邀请赴
朝鲜平壤外国语大学,为
第13届世界青年节培训同
声译员。在二外先后担任
口译、英汉翻译、英文写
作、谈判技巧等科目的教
学工作 1992年被评为北
京市高等学校优秀青年骨
干教师。除翻译教学工作
外,现主要从事行为心理
学、翻译理论和英文写作
的研究工作。
主要著作:
《高级英语习语功能教程》
《广告英语选读》
《现代英语妙语珠连》
《英语书信写作与应用》
《奥妙的人体语言》
《神奇的无声语言》

书籍目录

CONTENTS
Chapter 1
A Framework for Writing in English
1. The Linguistic Competence of the Writer
2. Adjusting the Ways of Thinking
3. Cultural Awareness and the Writing Senses
4. Developing the Writing Skills
5 How This Book Can BeBest Used
Chapter 2
The Use of Words
1. Parts of Speech and Their Functions
1.1 Nouns
1.2 Verbs
1.3 Adjectives
1.4 Prepositions
2. The Concrete and Accurate Use of Words
2.1 Concrete Words
2.2 Accurate Words
3. The Effective and Artistic Use of Words
3.1 Imitative Words
3.2 Sight Words
3.3 Touch Words
3.4 Sound Words
3.5 Taste and Smell Words
3.6 Intensifiers
3.7 Adjectives for Describing a Person
4. Usual Words for Unusual Effect
4.1 The Exaggerated Use of Words
4.2 Vivid Words for Vivid Pictures
Chapter 3
Sentence Writing Skills
1. Verb Agreement within a Sentence
2. Sentence Patterns for Statements
3. Sentences with Adverbials
4 Attributes and Attributive Clauses
4.1 The Functioning Positions of Attributes
4.2 Elements Serving as Attributes
4.3 Defining Attributive Clauses
4.4 Non-defining Attributive Clauses
5 Subjects and Subjective Clauses
5.1 Elements Functioning as Subjects
5.2 Subjective Clauses
5.3 The "It" Structure
6. Predicative Clauses
7. Object Clauses
8 Complex and Longer Sentences
8.1 Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses
8.2 Complex Sentences with Adjective Clauses
8.3 Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses
9. Inverted Sentences
10. Parallel Structureb
11. Sentence Euphony
12 Sentence Variety
Chapter 4
Paragraph Planning and Development
1 Paragraph Variety
1.1 Sample Opening Paragraphs
1.2 Sample Body Paragraphs
1.3 Sample Concluding Paragraphs
1.4 Sample Comprehensive Paragraphs
1.5 Sample Paragraphs of Various Styles
2 Paragraph Quality
2.1 Fullness
2.2 Unity
2.3 Coherence
2.4 Emphasis
2.5 Brevity
2.6 Euphony
3 Paragraph Development Techniques
3.1 The Writing of Opening Paragraphs
3.2 The Writing of Concluding Paragraphs
3.3 The Writing of Body Paragraphs
3.4 The Writing of Comprehensive Paragraphs
4. Sample Paragraphs from Famous Authors
5 Topic Sentences for Writing Practice
5.1 Topic Sentences That Head a Paragraph
5.2 Topic Sentences That Conclude a Paragraph
Chapter 5
The Development of College Composition, Essay and Other
Writings
1. College Composition Writing Skills
1.1 Sample Analysis
1.2 Steps in Composition Writing
1.3 Reading and Thinking
1.4 Composition Writing Practice
2. Essay Writing Skills
2.1 Sample Analysis
2.2 Basics in Essay Writing
3. Precis and Summary Writing Skills
3.1 Sample Analysis
3.2 Important Points in Summary Wrlting
3.3 Procedures in Writing a Summary
4. Report Writing Skills
4.1 A Sample Report
4.2 Basics in Report Writing
4.3 Rules of Grammar in Report Writing
5 Writing Skills in Focus
5.1 The Head-to-feet Format
5.2 The Feet-to-head Format
Chapter 6
Punctuation and Other Basics
1 Punctuation
1.1 The Period
1.2 The Ellipsis
1.3 The Question Mark
1.4 The Exclamation Mark
1.5 The Comma
1.6 The Semicolon
1.7 The Colon
1.8 The Apostrophe
1.9 The Quotation Mark
1.10 The Parenthesis
1.11 The Bracket
1.12 The Dash
1.13 The Hyphen
2. Abbreviations
3. Capitalization
4. Italics
5. Footnotes
6. Bibliographies
Chapter 7
English Rhetorical Devices
1. Simile
2. Metaphor
3. Metonymy
4. Hyperbole
5. Onomatopoeia
6. Euphemism
7. Pun
8 A Glimpse of English Rhetorical Devices
Chapter 8
Guided Writing Practice
1 Practice in Developing an Argumentative Composition
2. Practice in Developing a Composition of Analysis
3. Practice in Developing a Composition of Synthesis
4. Practice in Developing a Composition of Definition
5. Practice in Developing a Composition of Description
6. Practice in Developing a Composition of Narration
7. Practice in Developing a Composition of Classification
8. Practice in Developing a Comparative Composition
9. Other Topics for Writing Practice
Bibliography

作者简介

内容简介
本书致力于解决
中国学生在英语写作
中面临的四个主要问
题,即语言障碍、母
语思维方式的影响、
思想表达能力的缺乏
及写作技巧的生疏:
在介绍写作基础知识
的同时,本书从写作
的各个环节入手,引
导学生把握正确的写
作思路,掌握丰富的
写作技巧。书中范例
均选自欧美最新报刊
和当代文学作品。每
一个讲解点都配有针
对性强的练习。第八
章总练习对开启写作
思路,磨炼写作技巧
更加具有指导意义。

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