Beginners: success is easy to see at this level, and easy for the teacher toarrange. But then so is failure！ Some adult beginners find that languagelearning is more stressful than they expected and reluctantly give up.However, if things are going well, teaching beginners can be incrediblystimulating - and great fun. It may be restricting for the teacher, but thepleasure of being able to see your part in your students success isinvigorating.Intermediate students: success is not so easy to perceive here.Intermediate students have already achieved a lot. Gone are the days whenthey could observe their progress almost daily. Sometimes, it may seem tothem, they dont improve that much or that fast anymore. We often callthis the plateau effect, and the teacher has to make strenuous attempts toshow students what they still need to learn without being discouraging.One of the ways of doing this is to make the tasks we give them morechallenging and to get them to analyse language more thoroughly. Weneed to help them to set clear goals for themselves so that they havesomething to measure their achievement by.Advanced students: they already know a lot of English. There is still thedanger of the plateau effect （even if the plateau itself is higher up） so wehave to create a classroom culture where learning is not seen as learning alanguage httle-bit-by-little-bit. At the advanced level, we need to be ableto show students what still has to be done and we need to provide goodclear evidence of progress. We can do this through a concentration not somuch on grammatical accuracy, but on style and perceptions ofappropriacy, connotation and inference, helping students to use languagewith more subtlety. It is at this level, especially, that we have to encouragestudents to take more and more responsibility for their own learning.Although many activities can clearly be used at more than one level（designing newspaper front pages, writing radio commercials etc.）, thereare some which are obviously more appropriate for beginners, for example,pronunciation practice of/o/, simple introduction dialogues, while thereare others which are more appropriate for advanced students, such asdiscursive essay writing or formal debating. One obvious difference in the way we teach different levels is language.Beginners need to be exposed to fairly simple language which they canunderstand. In their language work, they may get pleasure （and goodlearning） from concentrating on straightforward questions like Whatsyour name？, Whats your telephone number？, Hello, Goodbye etc.Intermediate students know all this language already and so we will notask them to concentrate on it. The level of language also affects the teachers behaviour. At beginnerlevels, the need for us to rough-tune our speech is very great: we canexaggerate our voice tone and gesture to help us to get our meaning across.But at higher levels, such extreme behaviour is not so important. Indeed,it will probably come across to the students as patronising.
近年来，国际交往日益频繁，国际贸易急速发展，出现了一种前所未有的现象：学外语、教外语、用外语的人多了；研究语言学和应用语言学的人多了；开设这方面专业的高校也多了，语言学硕士生和博士生也多了。就是不以此为专业，学习语言学和应用语言学的也不乏其人。为了给从事这个专业的师生提供便利，同时又帮助一般外语教师、涉外工作者以及汉语研究者开阔思路，扩大视野，提高效率，我们献上这套内容崭新而丰富的丛书——英文版《当代国外语言学与应用语言学文库》。 文库首批推出54部外国英文原著，它覆盖了语言学与应用语言学26个分支学科。这批书是我们与各地有关专家教授反复研究之后精选出来的。出版这样大规模的语言学与应用语言学丛书，这在我国语言学界和外语教学界是破天荒第一次。 我们这样做，抱着什么希望呢？总的说来，是遵循教育部关于加强一级学科教育的指示，在世纪之交，推出一套书来给中国的外语教育领航，同时也给一般外语工作者和汉语研究者提供信息，拓宽思路。 我们希望这个文库能成为进一步带动外语教学改革和科研的发动机；我们希望它能成为运载当代外国语言学理论、语言研究方法和语言教学方法来到中国的特快列车；我们希望，有了这套书，语言学与应用语言学专业师生就能顺利地进行工作；我们希望，通过读这套书，青年外语教师和外语、汉语研究者能迅速把能力提高，把队伍不断扩大。
哈默，Jeremy Harmer is the author of the highly acclaimed and ever popular The Practice of English Language Teaching.
Preface by HallidayAcknowledgementsIntrodction1 How to be a good teacher What makes a good teacher? How should teachers talk to stueents? How should teachers give instructions Who should talk in class? What are the best kinds of lesson? How important is it to follow a pre-arranged plan? Conclusions Looking ahead2 How to be a good learner Why is it difficult to describe a good learner? How imprrtant is the students'motivation? Who is responsible for learning? What is reponsible for learning? What's special about teaching adults? How shoule we teach the sifferent levels? Conclusions Looking ahead3 How to manage teaching and learnign How should teachers use their physical presence in class? How Should teachers use their voices in class? How SHould teachers mark the stages of a lesson? What different student groupings can teachers use? How can teachers evaluate the success or failure of their Lessons? Conclusions Looking ahead4 How to descridb learnign and teaching5 How to describe language6 How to teach laguage7 How to teach teading8 How to teach writing9 How to teach speaking10 How to teach listeningConclusionsLooking ahead
《怎样教英语》内容简介：An introduction to the practice of English language teaching How to Teach English is for teachers at an early stage in their careers and for teachers preparing for examinations such as The Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults or The Certificate in TESOL. This book gives clear examples and explanations of current teaching practice which teachers can put into immediate use. How to Teach English offers: ideas on what makes a good teacher and what makes a good learner descriptions and examples of language teaching methods. and a new model of good leaching practice-the 'ESA'model an essential introduction to grammar teaching sequences for grammar, vocabulary, and the individual language skills ideas on the exploitation of textbooks and the planning of lessons a 'What if?' review of common problems in the classroom a Task File of photocopiable training tasks appendices on equipment, further reading and phonetic symbols.
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