版权页：插图：Time orientation refers to the value or importance the members of a culture place onthe passage of time. How a culture perceives and uses the concepts of past, present, andfuture was discussed in Chapter 2 when looked at cultural values. Time is not only tied tocultural values but also to nonverbal communication.a. Past-oriented CulturesPast-oriented cultures regard previous experiences and events as most important.These cultures place a primary emphasis on tradition and the wisdom passed down fromolder generations. Consequently, they show a great deal of deference and respect forparents and other elders, who are the links to these past sources of knowledge. Events arecircular, as important patterns perpetually recur in the present; therefore, tried-and-truemethods for overcoming obstacles and dealing with problems can be applied to currentdifficulties. Many aspects of the British, Chinese, and Native American experiences, forinstance, can be understood only by reference to their reverence for traditions, past familyexperiences, or tribal customs. The Chinese and Japanese, with their traditions ofancestor worship and strong pride in their cultures, persistence for thousands of years, usethe past as a guide to how to live in the present. Cultures and co-cultures that value thepast find it normal to take a long-range view of events and are less likely to be rushed whenthey face decisions. Cultures that value the past are also more likely to respect andvenerate the elderly than cultures that value the future.
Chapter1 Culture and Intercultural CommunicationChapter2 Cultural PatternsChapter3 Verbal CommuncationChapter4 Nonverbal CommunicationChapter5 Social Interaction CustornsChapter6 Cultural Infiuences on ContextsChapter7 Potential Problems in Intercultural CommunicationChapter8 Intercultural Communcation competenceReferences
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