神经系统

出版社:北京大学医学
出版日期:2011-4
ISBN:9787565901126
作者:(英)米歇尔-提图斯
页数:333页

章节摘录

版权页:插图:The cingulate cortex evaluates the affective signifi-cance of events, i.e. whether they are harmful or benefi-cial. Anatomical studies have revealed prominent afferentinput to the cingulate motor areas from the limbic struc-tures and the prefrontal cortex, which can send informa-tion about motivation and the internal state of subjects, aswell as cognitive evaluation of the environment. The ante-rior cingulate cortex is also involved in pain perception,receiving input from the posterior insula cortex. Otherimportant inputs are from the anterior thalamic nucleus,which receives its input from the mamillary bodies form-ing the Papez circuit, involved in the cortical control ofemotion (see Fig. 1.18). The anterior cingulate gyrus com-municates between the prefrontal cortex and subcorticalareas of the limbic system. Bilateral destruction releasesthe 'rage centres' of the amygdala and hypothalamusfrom any prefrontal inhibitory influence.   The limbic system is tightly connected to the prefron-tal cortex, and together they funnel emotional input tothe hypothalamus. There is frontal lobe asymmetry inregard to emotional processing. Activation in the left pre-frontal regions may be part of a mechanism that inhibits'negative' affect (e.g. sadness and disgust); conversely,the right prefrontal regions may inhibit positive emotions(e.g. happiness). Peple with increased left prefrontalactivity are described as more 'optimistic' and more adeptat minimizing negative emotions. Lesions of the left pre-frontal neocortex are more likely to be associated withdepression than lesions in the homologous location inthe right hemisphere. During the Wada test, when the lefthemisphere is temporarily anaesthetized, patients reportnegative changes in mood (e.g. sadness). PET studieshave indicated increased left-side orbitofrontal blood flowduring self-generated sadness.

内容概要

编者:(英国)Adina Michael-Titus (英国)Patricia Revest (英国)Peter Shortland

书籍目录

1  ORGANIZATION OFTHE NERVOUS SYSTEM  1  Introduction  2  Overview of brain anatomy  2  Internal anatomy of the brain  5  Ventricular system  10  Forebrain  11  Hemisphere specialization  12  Limbic system  14  Orbitofrontal cortex  17  Basal ganglia  17  Diencephalon  17  Thalamus  18  Hypothalamus  19  Peripheral nervous system  21  Putting it all together: from anatomy to behaviour  292  ELEMENTS OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE  31  Introduction  32  Neurones  32  Glial cells  34  Neurone excitability  35  Neurotransmitters  41  Postsynaptic events and postsynaptic receptors  423  CLINICAL EXAMINATION  47  Introduction  48  Parts of the clinical examination  48  Other investigations  55  General comments  574  THE SPINAL CORD  59  Introduction  60  Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and vertebral  column  60  Functional organization of the spinal cord  61  Spinal cord cell types  63  Receptive fields  64  Somatosensory pathways  65  Blood supply to the spinal cord  71  Damage to the spinal cord  72  Comments on the case history  785  PAIN AND ANALGESIA  79  Introduction  80  Nociceptors  81  Pain pathways  82  How does the central nervous system interpret a  stimulus as painful?  84  Physiology of pain modulation  86  Pain mechanisms after tissue damage: peripheral and  central sensitization  90  Neuropathic pain mechanisms  92  Pharmacology of pain  93  Other approaches to pain management  99  General comments on pain management  1046  CRANIAL NERVES AND THE BRAINSTEM  105  Introduction  106  Anatomical organization of cranial nerves in the brain  106  Internal organization of the brainstem  107  Reticular formation  109  Blood supply to the brainstem  ~12  Brainstem reflexes  112  Brainstem lesions  116  Comments on the case history  1187  THE VISUAL SYSTEM  121  Introduction  122  Structure of the eye  122  Visual pathways  125  Visual field defects  127  Pupillary light reflexes  127  Focusing of light on the retina  127  Control of eye movements  130  Structure and function of the retina  131  Processing of visual information  137  Summary  1408  HEARING AND BALANCE: THE AUDITORY AND VESTIBULAR SYSTEMS  141  Introduction  142  The auditory system  142  The vestibular system  152  Comments on the case history  1589  MOTOR SYSTEMS h DESCENDING PATHWAYS AND CEREBELLUM  159  Introduction  160  Skeletal muscle contraction  161  Reflexes  164  Descending pathways  167  Clinical importance of reflexes  172  The cerebellum  17510  MOTOR SYSTEMS II: THE BASAL GANGLIA  181  Introduction  182  The basal ganglia: structure and organization  182  Parkinson's disease  184  Huntington's disease  19411  STROKE AND HEAD iNJURY  199  Introduction  200  Physiological control of cdrebral blood flow  200  Blood supply to the brain  201  Venous system  204  Functional anatomy of the cerebral vasculature  205  Angiography  206  Stroke  206  Head injury  219  Comments on the case history  22512  INFECTION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM  227  Introduction  228  Types of infection of the central nervous system  228  The meninges  229  Cerebrospinal fluid production and circulation  230  The blood-brain barrier  232  Meningitis  232  Diagnosis and treatment of meningitis  234  Treatment of meningitis  235  Encephalitis  235  Cerebral abscesses  235  Brain infections in the immunocompromised patient  23613  EPILEPSY  237  Introduction  238  General description of epilepsy  238  Epidemiology of epilepsy  238  Types o.f epileptic syndrome  239  Diagnostic investigations of epilepsy  239  Different types of seizure  242  Neurobiology of epilepsy  243  Pharmacological treatment of epilepsy  246  Other treatments for epilepsy  248  Treatment of status epilepticus  249  Social consequences of epilepsy  24914  DEMENTIA  251  Introduction  252  Causes and diagnosis of dementia  252  Neurobiology of learning and memory  253  Alzheimer's disease  256  Treatment of Alzheimer's disease  261  Other types of dementia  263  General considerations in the management of  Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia  26515  SCHIZOPHRENIA  267  Introduction  268  Schizophrenia: the clinical diagnosis  268  Aetiology of schizophrenia  271  Neurobiology of schizophrenia  272  Treatment of schizophrenia  275  Comments on the management of schizophrenia and the long-term prognosis  278  Other psychoses and schizophrenia-like syndromes  27916  DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY  281  Introduction  282  Classification o~ mood disorders  282  Clinical features of mood disorders  282  Epidemiology of depression and natural evolution of the disease  283  Genetics of mood disorders  283  Neurobiology of depression  286  Treatment of depression  287  Bipolar disorder and its treatment  292  General comments on mood disorders  293  Need for new therapeutic targets  294  Comments on the case history 294  Anxiety disorders  294  Treatment of anxiety disorders  295  Insomnia  29717  ADDICTION 301  Introduction  302  Addiction and drug misuse: general comments  302  Opiates  302  Cocaine and crack  304  Cannabis  305  Nicotine  307  Alcohol  308  Phencyclidine  309  Amphetamines  310  Ecstasy--or the beginning of agony?  310  Hallucinogens  311  Solvents  311  Neurobiology of addiction  312  Addiction and rehabilitation: general issues  313Index  315

编辑推荐

《神经系统(第2版)》:The Systems of the Body series has established itself as a valuable resource for allmedical and other health science students following system-based courses. In thissecond edition all the volumes have been updated to take into account feedback fromreaders of the first edition. Each volume conunues to present the core knowledge ofbasic science and clinical conditions that medical students need, offering an integratedview of the system unavailable from standard textbooks. An expanded selection ofThis book brings to life the basic science of the nervous sy.stem andits major diseases. After early chapters on its general organxzationand cellular and molecular mechanisms, clinical scenarios are usedto introduce and discuss the knowledge required for diagnosis andtreatment of major conditions of the nervous system.Organization of the nervous system、Elements of cellular and molecular neuroscience、Clinical examination、Spinal cord、Pain and analgesia、Cranial nerves and the brainstem、The visual system、Hearing and balance: the auditory and vestibular systems、Motor systems I: descending pathways and cerebellum、Motor systems II: the basal ganglia、Stroke and head injury、Infection in the central nervous system、Epilepsy、Dementia、Schizophrenia、Depression and anxiety、AddictionThe Nervous System is ideal for medical students, and also for studentsof other health professions taking systems-based courses.

作者简介

《神经系统(第2版)》内容简介:“以器官系统为中心”的医学教学模式是国际医学教育的趋势。本系列书是世界著名医药卫生出版集团爱思唯尔公司出版的一套“以器官系统为中心”的医学基础课程教材。该套教材第1版出版后受到世界各地许多医学院校的欢迎,并被多家进行“以器官系统为中心”教学的医学院校选定为教材。第2版根据第1版出版后教师和学生的反馈意见,结合医学知识的更新进行了全新修订。在编写内容上,该系列教材强调基础与临床的整合。每一章节都是围绕着一个临床病例展开,通过对病人问题的呈现以及解决过程引出对相关知识的探究,从而使与器官系统结构、功能以及疾病相关的重要的基础医学知识得到了完善的整合。在版式安排上,图框中的病例资料与正文中的医学知识完美匹配,一步一步地激起读者的求知欲望。本册为《神经系统》。

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  •     书很不错,我很喜欢,希望能把重点部分看完
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